Apache Tomcat Development
Apache Tomcat 6.0
Jasper 2 JSP Engine How To
Tomcat 6.0 uses the Jasper 2 JSP Engine to implement
the JavaServer Pages 2.1
Jasper 2 has been redesigned to significantly improve performance over
the original Jasper. In addition to general code improvements the following
changes were made:
- JSP Custom Tag Pooling - The java objects instantiated
for JSP Custom Tags can now be pooled and reused. This significantly boosts
the performance of JSP pages which use custom tags.
- Background JSP compilation - If you make a change to
a JSP page which had already been compiled Jasper 2 can recompile that
page in the background. The previously compiled JSP page will still be
available to serve requests. Once the new page has been compiled
successfully it will replace the old page. This helps improve availability
of your JSP pages on a production server.
- Recompile JSP when included page changes - Jasper 2
can now detect when a page included at compile time from a JSP has changed
and then recompile the parent JSP.
- JDT used to compile JSP pages - The
Eclipse JDT Java compiler is now used to perform JSP java source code
compilation. This compiler loads source dependencies from the container
classloader. Ant and javac can still be used.
Jasper is implemented using the servlet class
By default Jasper is configured for use when doing web application
development. See the section
Production Configuration for information on configuring Jasper
for use on a production Tomcat server.
The servlet which implements Jasper is configured using init parameters
in your global
- checkInterval - If development is false and checkInterval
is greater than zero, background compiles are enabled. checkInterval is the time
in seconds between checks to see if a JSP page (and its dependent files) needs
to be recompiled. Default
- classdebuginfo - Should the class file be compiled with
- classpath - Defines the class path to be used to compile
the generated servlets. This parameter only has an effect if the ServletContext
attribute org.apache.jasper.Constants.SERVLET_CLASSPATH is not set. This
attribute is always set when Jasper is used within Tomcat. By default the
classpath is created dynamically based on the current web application.
- compiler - Which compiler Ant should use to compile JSP
pages. See the Ant documentation for more information. If the value is not set,
then the default Eclipse JDT Java compiler will be used instead of using Ant.
No default value.
- compilerSourceVM - What JDK version are the source files
compatible with? (Default value:
- compilerTargetVM - What JDK version are the generated files
compatible with? (Default value:
- development - Is Jasper used in development mode? If true,
the frequency at which JSPs are checked for modification may be specified via
the modificationTestInterval parameter.
- displaySourceFragment - Should a source fragment be
included in exception messages?
- dumpSmap - Should the SMAP info for JSR45 debugging be
dumped to a file?
false if suppressSmap is true.
- enablePooling - Determines whether tag handler pooling is
enabled. This is a compilation option. It will not alter the behaviour of JSPs
that have already been compiled.
- engineOptionsClass - Allows specifying the Options class
used to configure Jasper. If not present, the default EmbeddedServletOptions
will be used.
- errorOnUseBeanInvalidClassAttribute - Should Jasper issue
an error when the value of the class attribute in an useBean action is not a
valid bean class?
- fork - Have Ant fork JSP page compiles so they are
performed in a separate JVM from Tomcat?
- genStringAsCharArray - Should text strings be generated as
char arrays, to improve performance in some cases? Default
false. The alternative name of genStrAsCharArray
for this initialisation parameter is also supported.
- ieClassId - The class-id value to be sent to Internet
Explorer when using <jsp:plugin> tags. Default
- javaEncoding - Java file encoding to use for generating
java source files. Default
- keepgenerated - Should we keep the generated Java source
code for each page instead of deleting it?
- mappedfile - Should we generate static content with one
print statement per input line, to ease debugging?
- modificationTestInterval - Causes a JSP (and its dependent
files) to not be checked for modification during the specified time interval
(in seconds) from the last time the JSP was checked for modification. A value of
0 will cause the JSP to be checked on every access. Used in development mode
only. Default is
- recompileOnFail - If a JSP compilation fails should the
modificationTestInterval be ignored and the next access trigger a re-compilation
attempt? Used in development mode only and is disabled by default as compilation
may be expensive and could lead to excessive resource usage.
- scratchdir - What scratch directory should we use when
compiling JSP pages? Default is the work directory for the current web
- suppressSmap - Should the generation of SMAP info for JSR45
debugging be suppressed?
- trimSpaces - Should white spaces in template text between
actions or directives be trimmed ?, default
- xpoweredBy - Determines whether X-Powered-By response
header is added by generated servlet.
The Java compiler from Eclipse JDT in included as the default compiler. It is
an advanced Java compiler which will load all dependencies from the Tomcat class
loader, which will help tremendously when compiling on large installations with
tens of JARs. On fast servers, this will allow sub-second recompilation cycles
for even large JSP pages.
Apache Ant, which was used in previous Tomcat releases, can be used instead
of the new compiler by simply removing the
and placing the
from the latest Ant distribution in the
As described in
bug 39089, a known JVM issue,
bug 6294277, may cause a
java.lang.InternalError: name is too long to represent exception
when compiling very large JSPs. If this is observed then it may be worked around
by using one of the following:
- reduce the size of the JSP
- disable SMAP generation and JSR-045 support by setting
The main JSP optimization which can be done is precompilation of JSPs.
However, this might not be possible (for example, when using the
jsp-property-group feature) or practical, in which case the configuration of the
Jasper servlet becomes critical.
When using Jasper 2 in a production Tomcat server you should consider making
the following changes from the default configuration.
- development - To disable on access checks for JSP
pages compilation set this to
- genStringAsCharArray - To generate slightly more efficient
char arrays, set this to
- modificationTestInterval - If development has to be set to
true for any reason (such as dynamic generation of JSPs), setting
this to a high value will improve performance a lot.
- trimSpaces - To remove useless bytes from the response,
set this to
If you wish to use
Jikes to compile JSP pages:
- From your Ant installation, copy ant.jar
and (if it's available: Ant 1.5 and later) ant-launcher.jar to
- Download and install jikes. jikes must support the -encoding option.
jikes -help to verify that it was built with support
- Set the init parameter
- Define the property
-Dbuild.compiler.emacs=true when starting
Tomcat by adding it to your
CATALINA_OPTS environment variable.
This changes how jikes outputs error messages so that it is compatible with
- If you get an error reporting that jikes can't use UTF8 encoding, try
setting the init parameter